Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Birth of Rock N’ Roll – a Case of Racial Conflict

THE BIRTH OF ROCK n’ ROLL – A CASE OF RACIAL CONFLICT The term rock ‘n’ roll has been traced back as far as the 1920s in black music, but it became an accepted when disc jockey Alan Freed began used it to describe the character of the rhythm and blues he played on his radio program in the mid-‘50s. The term â€Å"Rockin' and Rollin† were originally used as slang for sex, in black pop music. However, it went on to become the name for a new, salacious musical genre.Innovation in audio technology, new instruments, fresh talent, business savvy record producers, and a young population of new consumers created by post-war economic prosperity helped turn â€Å"race music† into â€Å"rock and roll†. The roots of Rock & Roll can be traced back to rhythm and blues and country rock. We must note the political context of the rock n' roll movement before delving deeper into the recesses of the genre.Black people were beginning to identify and assert themselves racially supported by a series of Supreme Court judgments in favour of integration and the Black community in general Rock n' roll became a symbol of Black empowerment to the Whites, especially to the segregationists who were accustomed to and valued a separation of the races, but were now legally forced to operate against those segregationist values. The resistance to rock n' roll music, highly enjoyed by young White kids, was a culmination of all the hostility and tension of the Civil Rights movement.There was a certain White resistance to such music in the form of The Ku Klux Klan and other White-supremacist organizations that openly preached the exaggerated consequences of listening to rock n' roll music. The term â€Å"jungle music† was used to describe the rock n' roll beat, declaring it would cause the White youth to lose their sense of humanity and dignity while mixing races. This kind of resistance to the rock n' roll movement often came to physical assaults on Black performers. There have been reports of assaults such as the one on Nat King Cole, arguably one of the most docile African American performers of the time.While performing at a Whites-only venue, a mob rushed the stage and beat him. Nat King Cole not only suffered the bruising from the White audience who ambushed him, but also a tongue lashing from Black activists who reprimanded him for not demanding integrated venues. The conflicts of rock n' roll music are direct reflections of both the institutional resistances of Whites to integration and the widespread exploitations of Blacks across the country in many industries. The post-war economic boom ushered in a new era in radio broadcasting.With greater competition, national radio networks gave way to a horde of new independent, locally based stations hosting a variety of entertainment programs. White radio producers would hide Black performers from White audiences. They would often choose a tune with potential from a Black artist, and have a White singer perform the song without the provocative dancing or emotive moaning of the original version. This proved to be a multiple win for the Whites as the Black artist would be kept away from the spotlight, the White producer was making the money, and White kids were idolizing the White singer.It is widely believed that iconic artists like Pat Boone, Elvis and Georgia Gibbs began by assisting in the exploitation of Black artists who were replaced by more-polished, White impersonators. Many observers suggest that rock n' roll would never have been so controversial had it not been for the sexual revolutions and conflicts going on throughout the mid 1900s. The rock n' roll revolution coincided with the institutional revolution of acknowledging youth sex. Rock n’ roll music often ended up portraying sex as a new, fun activity, something that normally happens when young people fall in love.The older generations were quite averse to such music and u sed many tactics to resist the trend. Magazine campaigning became very popular among the older generations; parental guides and â€Å"girl talks† were printed to show that people still valued pre-marital abstinence. The situation eventually escalated into full censorship, until disc jockeys and music hall owners refused to play Black records in general. There were petitions and requests for radio stations to not play sexually-explicit lyrics, but the response was relatively weak. The truth is that the White artists, who impersonated the Blacks, saved the movement.They cleaned up the sound and look of rock n' roll, until White parents would accept it. Parents did not want their sons and daughters listening to wild rocker Little Richard Penniman, but would let them listen to Pat Boone. Soon, White faces like Elvis Presley and Jerry Lewis were reintroducing the sexuality of rock n' roll music and launched it into mainstream legend. Black popular music—everything from jazz and blues to boogie-woogie and rhythm and blues—stood at odds to the white pop songs and artists that epitomized post-world war conservatism. By comparison, rock n’ roll was raunchy, unrestrained, rowdy, and even evolutionary. That which was categorized by the record industry as â€Å"race music† stood as a powerful cultural alternative to the tight-lipped, conformist values. Black Rock n' Roll music also reflected major social and cultural changes brought on by post war urbanization, including youthful rebellion. By contrast, white pop music had ignored or watered down these transformations. American youth, inspired by nonconformist icons like James Dean, Marlon Brando, and Natalie Wood, naturally gravitated toward the more edgy black tunes which they felt spoke of their frustrations.These young whites made black music their own by learning the dances, memorizing the slang, and copying the cool swagger of African-American boogie-woogie and rhythm and blues art ists. They claimed as their own a genre scorned by most whites born before World War II. Thus, Rock n' Roll was indeed reflective of the Civil Rights movement. It stirred up a whole generation and shows that a culture conflict usually always has a deeper context to be found.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Michael Porter Theory Essay

Literature Review on What Is Strategy BY khem123 Introduction: Strategy and management is one of the prominent and most discussed topic in the organization and business studies. Organizations today are challenged by many factors both internal and external and need to effectively address such, which makes only possible by the organization effective leader and their strategic view to overcome and take their company into profitable, competitive, innovative and change. Further, the shift of organization from being local onto global and so the factors of ross-cultural, internationalization cross-disciplinary knowledge of geo-economy, politics, business, market, volatile competition, wide range of customer, and other globalization factors brings further complexity and encounters, hence urgency of more robust leadership, strategy and creative approaches is at forefront than anytime in the history; to struggle and compete this dynamic challenges. In the Michael Porter (1996) literature What is strategy; one of the concept of the organization strategy can be understood as being â€Å"different† from the competitors nd so with the different end outcome and added value to the organization as a long- term advantages. It means that, an industry or organization could be operated in a different way than it’s competitor, which will allow to achieve long-term value creation. In other words; strategy can be understood as, what are the organization unique positions in order to achieve organizational effectiveness, and competitive advantages at the end of the day. The author argues that; strategy can significantly be divided in a wider way of doing things. As a competitive way of thinking, industry has its own-target area and ways of doing the business, for example; defined vision and goals, particular business activities, objectives, niche customer, differentiated product or service, market segments, key technological drivers, different approach on marketing, and so forth. Also each company has its own rivals, key market presences and targeted economic outcome. However, every company is seeking for the unique ideas and plans to stay in the market for the longer period, to achieve strong conomy and become one of the competitive in its industry frame. This will help to achieve greater value to the industry. The basic notion of the strategy here is; it is a set of systematically planned actions that takes time out for a particular purpose on, how companies are going to be unique, achieve competitive advantages and sustain over longer span of time. This is the core essence of organization strategy. Strategy in relation to operational effectiveness; it is important to be stay ahead from the competitor and aggressively gain the efficiencies. However; competitor may act uickly with such manner to stay long term in the market. An organization may have chosen different area to stay in frontier from the rivals and putting more effort and superior performance to achieve goals. Such as deliver value to customers, comparable value at lower cost, creating activities to produce, sell and deliver of product and service, training employees, calling to customer, assembling final products etc. ; hence, the value created by these activities will help organization to lead than the rivals, and so company can performance better than its counter

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Answer to Chapter 1 Introduction to Derivatives & Risk Management, Chance, Brooks.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. (Market Efficiency and Theoretical Fair Value) An efficient market is one in which prices reflect the true economic values of the assets trading therein. In efficient markets, no one can earn returns that are more than commensurate with the level of risk. Efficient markets are characterized by low transaction costs and by the rapid rate at which new information is incorporated into prices. 2. (Arbitrage and the Law of One Price) Arbitrage is a type of investment transaction that seeks to profit when identical goods are priced differently. Buying an item at one price and immediately selling it at another is a type of arbitrage. Because of the combined activities of arbitrageurs, identical goods, primarily financial assets, cannot sell for different prices for long. This is the law of one price. Arbitrage helps make our markets efficient by assuring that prices are in line with what they are supposed to be. In short, we cannot get something for nothing. A situation involving two identical goods or portfolios that are not priced equivalently would be exploited by arbitrageurs until their prices were equal. The â€Å"one price† that an asset must be is called the â€Å"theoretical fair value. † 3. (Arbitrage and the Law of One Price) The law of one price is violated if the same good is selling at different prices. On the surface it may appear as if that is the case; however, it is important to look beneath the surface to determine if the goods are identical. Part of the cost of the good is convenience and customer service. Some consumers might be willing to pay more because the dealer is located in a more desirable section of town. Also, the higher priced dealer may have a better reputation for service and customer satisfaction. Buyers may be willing to pay more if they feel that the premium they pay helps assure them that they are getting a fair deal. It is important to note that many goods are indeed identical and, if so, they should sell at the same price, but the Law of One Price is not violated if the price differential accounts for some economic value. 4. (The Storage Mechanism) Storage is simply holding the asset. Some assets, like commodities, require considerable storage space and entail significant storage costs. Others, like stocks and bonds, do not consume much space but, as we shall see later, do incur costs. Storage enables us to more adequately meet our consumption needs and, thus, provides for a more efficient alteration of our consumption patterns across time. For example, we can store grains for the winter. In the case of stocks and bonds, we can store them and sell them later. The proceeds from the sale of the securities can be used to meet consumption needs at the later time. Likewise, storage enables speculators to hold goods and securities in the hope of selling them later at a profit. In addition, storage plays an important role in defining the relationship between spot instruments and derivatives. 5. (Delivery and Settlement) In futures markets, delivery seldom occurs. Since delivery is always possible, however, an expiring futures contract will be priced like the spot instrument. The knowledge that futures prices will eventually converge to spot prices is important to the pricing of futures contracts. 6. The Role of Derivative Markets) Derivative markets provide a means of adjusting the risk of spot market investments to a more acceptable level and identifying the consensus market beliefs. They make trading easier and less costly and spot markets more efficient. These markets also provide a means of speculating. 7. (Criticisms of Derivatives Markets) On the surface, it may be difficult to distinguish speculation from gambling. Both entail high risk w ith the expectation of high gain. The major difference that makes speculation somewhat more socially acceptable is that it offers benefits to society not conveyed by gambling. For example, speculators are necessary to assume the risk not wanted by others. In gambling, there is no risk being hedged. Gamblers simply accept risk without there being a concomitant reduction in someone else's risk. 8. (Misuses of Derivatives) Derivatives can be misused by speculating when one should be hedging, by not having acquired the requisite knowledge to use them properly by acting irresponsibly when using derivatives such as by being overly confident of one’s ability to forecast the direction of the market. 9. The Role of Derivative Markets) The existence of derivative markets in the United States economy and indeed throughout most modern countries of the world undoubtedly leads to a much higher degree of market efficiency. Derivatives facilitate the activities of individual arbitrageurs so that unequal prices of identical goods are arbitraged until they are equal. Because of the large number of arbitrageurs, this is a quick and efficient process. Arbitrage on this large a scale makes markets less capable of being manipulated, less costly to trade in, and therefore more attractive to investors. The opportunity to hedge also makes the markets more attractive to investors in managing risk. ) This is not to say that an economy without derivative markets would be inefficient, but it would not have the advantage of this arbitrage on a large scale. It is important to note that the derivative markets do not necessarily make the U. S. or world economy any larger or wealthier. The basic wealth, expected returns, and risks of the economy would be about the same without these markets. Derivatives simply create lower cost opportunities for investors to align their risks at more satisfactory levels. This may not necessarily make them wealthier, but to the extent that it makes them more satisfied with their positions, it serves a valuable purpose. 10. (Return and Risk) Return is the numerical measure of investment performance. There are two main measures of return, dollar return and percentage return. Dollar return measures investment performance as total dollar profit or loss. For example, the dollar return for stocks is the dollar profit from the change in stock price plus any cash dividends paid. It represents the absolute performance. Percentage return measures investment performance per dollar invested. It represents the percentage increase in the investor’s wealth that results from making the investment. In the case of stocks, the return is the percentage change in price plus the dividend yield. The concept of return also applies to options, but, as we shall see later, the definition of the return on a futures or forward contract is somewhat unclear. 1. (Repurchase Agreements) A repurchase agreement (known as repos) is a legal contract between a seller and a buyer, the seller agrees to sell a specified asset to the buyer currently as well as buy it back usually at a specified time in the future at an agreed future price. The seller is effectively borrowing money from the buyer at an implied interest rate. Typically, repos involve low risk secur ities, such as U. S. Treasury bills. Repos are useful because they provide a great deal of flexibility to both the borrower and lender. Derivatives traders often need to be able to borrow and lend money in the most cost-effective manner possible. Repos are often a very low cost way of borrowing money, particularly if the firm holds government securities. Repos are a way to earn interest on short-term funds with minimal risk (for buyers) and repos are a way to borrow for short-term needs at a relatively low cost (for sellers). 12. (Derivative Markets and Instruments) An option is a contract between two parties—a buyer and a seller—that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell something at a later date at a price agreed upon today. The option buyer pays the seller a sum of money called the price or premium. The option seller stands ready to sell or buy according to the contract terms if and when the buyer so desires. An option to buy something is referred to as a call; an option to sell something is called a put. A forward contract is a contract between two parties—a buyer and a seller—to purchase or sell something at a later date at a price agreed upon today. A forward contract sounds a lot like an option, but an option carries the right, not the obligation, to go through with the transaction. If the price of the underlying good changes, the option holder may decide to forgo buying or selling at the fixed price. On the other hand, the two parties in a forward contract incur the obligation to ultimately buy and sell the good. 13. (The Underlying Asset) Because all derivatives are based on the random performance of something, the word â€Å"derivative† is appropriate. The derivative derives its value from the performance of something else. That â€Å"something else† is often referred to as the underlying asset. The term underlying asset, however, is somewhat confusing and misleading. For instance, the underlying asset might be a stock, bond, currency, or commodity, all of which are assets. However, the underlying â€Å"asset† might also be some other random element such as the weather, which is not an asset. It might even be another derivative, such as a futures contract or an option.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Aboriginal stolen generation Essay

Given the ongoing and intergenerational effects of being taken away, is it useful to think of the Stolen Generations as something that happened in the past, or as a contemporary issue affecting Indigenous peoples? What implications are there for all Australians in recognizing the need for national healing? The Stolen Generation was a time of grief, sorrow and sadness for many indigenous people. To say that it is something of the past would be distorting the seriousness of the issue, the Stolen Generation was and always will be a contemporary issue affecting indigenous people. Although race relations in Australia have been signified for many decades there still remains a historic distinction between ‘black’ and ‘white’ people and this is why Australians are faced with the implications of recognizing the need for national healing. The immediate impacts of the Stolen Generation left many children feeling incomplete, lost and alone. The Stolen Generation continues to impact upon contemporary Indigenous spiritualties as the removal of a complete generation of children from their families has had a negative effect on the ability of these children to maintain their cultural identities, spirituality and their own sense of belonging to the world. The implications left for Australians in recognizing the need for national healing are extensive, Australians can be seen as the ones who need to continually fix the wrongs of the past, and although the nation strive towards coherence between Indigenous people and contemporary society it will never change what has already happened. The initial impacts of those victims of the stolen generation began with the direct disconnection from family members and the harsh reality that they were now separated from loved ones, which in some cases was forever. This factor in particular is one of the leading reasons that indigenous people are affected by the Stolen Generation as a contemporary issue in today’s society. Family is what provides a sense of closure and connection in an individual’s life. To have been stripped of that at such a young age leads to many complications and developmental issues that still haunt many indigenous people today. Many indigenous people are now suffering and hurting because of what occurred, and what they were faced with. As evidenced in one of many testimonies from victims of the stolen generation Frank Byrne is just one of many who are hurting, as he says that, â€Å"It’s very important to tell people our stories because we are hurting. It hurts. We lost our family and we didn’t bring that on. It was the Government. Why? We don’t know why. We’re just as human as everybody and we’re hurting†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The contemporary issue being represented is evident that the Stolen Generation is not something that can ever be put in the past, Frank was born in 1937 and taken away a short time after, if he is still hurting almost 70 years later then that should be enough to prove that the issue of removing children from their families at such a young age is a very serious one. Whilst indigenous people have suffered ongoing pain, there have been developments in addressing their desire for closure, and their need for an apology was finally addressed. However, the negative implications left for Australians in helping them heal can be seen as what really impacts upon the way in which Australians are able to help in the healing process. It can be seen as unfortunate that today’s societies are the ones who pay for the mistakes of the past and for some Australians it may be a burden thrust upon them that’s existence might not ever cease. It is assumed by many that no matter how much is done, Australia will always pay for the occurrence of the Stolen Generation and in a way that can be deemed true. It is more than obvious that suffering did not start and finish for members of the indigenous communities, suffering started many years ago and will remain, the brutality and seriousness of the issue does not simply heal with time or become a memory it is immovable from the world, and most importantly from those who suffered. In saying this however, there are others willing to help in achieving a positive connection with the members of the indigenous community, in particular those affected by the Stolen Generation. This can be seen through various orgainisation who thrive for a better society and aim at helping those in need of healing to heal and be given the closure they deserve. For example, ‘The healing foundation’ is a government run orgainisation with a main goal and belief that ‘We can close the Gap by supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to build stronger communities, heal the trauma, and preserve and celebrate our culture and our people’. Various healing programs are run through this orgainisation and they all aim to target different aspects that need to be addressed, eg; holding healing camps on country- This could ultimately help restore the connection to land that was once lost when removed from it, being in a place where you feel most comfortable would in due course enable indigenous people to strengthen that connection to the land, and in affect from that help their pain. The pain of the past, and the impact it has on the present is left with individuals from the Stolen Generation. It is safe to say that up until this present day Indigenous people are frowned upon by many, and are discriminated based on their race and opinions on what kind of people they really are. This in turn leads to the exclusion of individuals from society, and then the feeling of being rejected and neglected. This feeling has then impacted many to resort to violence &crime, alcohol abuse, drug abuse and in extreme cases suicide. However, whilst some resort to these negative responses, most are the victims of abuse and crime. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics the crime rate for indigenous people on average, are considerably higher crime victimisation rates. In 2008, around one-quarter (23%) of Indigenous people aged 15 years and over reported being a victim of physical or threatened violence in the last 12 months, and one in seven (15%) had experienced at least one episode of physical violence in the previous year (ABS 2010c). In 2009 in the Northern Territory, police recorded 5,985 Indigenous people per 100,000 Indigenous populations as victims of assault in 2009 compared to 1,150 non-Indigenous people per 100,000 non-Indigenous populations. The figures speak for themselves, being a part of the Stolen Generation may not only be the reason that indigenous people are secluded and victimized, but it does account for the distinction between them and the rest of the community. Being victimized becomes a very serious contemporary issue as it now creates the start of an ongoing chapter, where Indigenous people are targeted based on their race and who they are believed to be. It creates a polluted society where negative connotations are what define people, when it should at no time come down to that. Australians need to recognize the need for national healing, and address such issues like violence so that it sooner or later becomes non-existent. The implications for this that Australians are left with are to help those who are victims of abuse, and support the people of the Stolen Generation who need supporting. As outlined in the ‘Bringing them home report’ many homes that children were placed in were extremely cruel, and most suffered from sexual and physical abuse. It was evident that most in power abused their positions and as a result the Indigenous people were the ones who underwent the constant exploitation. In recognizing the need for healing all Australians are faced with the realization that because of this most indigenous people are sensitive to change, do not adapt well with strangers and as a result are separated from society. In helping break that barrier and minimize these effects it is important to enable space for change and recognition of the rights and needs of the indigenous communities, especially the ones directly impacted by the after math of the Stolen Generation. When they were taken away Indigenous people were not only stripped of their families, homes and belongings but they were stripped of their identity’s. Did not matter what their name was, who they were, or where they came from. Losing your identity and being forced to change so rapidly and harshly carried so many negative consequences for those who fell victim to the change. It is because of this that today, in our society many people are still impacted and lost in finding out who they really are or where their family could be now. Being forced to assimilate into a ‘white’ Australian fell under the ‘White Australia Policy, 1901’ The policy broke important cultural, spiritual and family ties which crippled not only individuals, but whole families and even whole communities. This as a result outlines the need for society today to be understanding and acknowledge the sensitive situation that most people may still be in. There is no greater struggle in life than finding out who you are and to have been broken from any connection which could ever lead you back home will most definitely leave Indigenous people broken for many generations to come. The impact this brings to Australian society is that the issue of social justice arises and again the division between indigenous people and Australians is made evident. The suffering of being separated from family is something that was stowed upon indigenous peoples by the white Australians at the time. The constant questioning of ‘why us?’ is probably such a question left un answered by many, this leads to the implications that some Australians may feel as though it is not their role, nor fault to be the ones to acknowledge and say sorry for what has happened in the past. Although this may cause a stir for some, it is the current nation and generations to come job to ensure that the feeling of displacement and lost identities are retrieved. The separation from family not only meant a lost identity for most, but also a disconnection to their land which thus impacted their spirituality and involvement in practicing their beliefs. The issue of land rights, and the way in which indigenous people present themselves to this day is still an issue in society. Indigenous people are prone to, and enjoy being outdoors to practice their faith, for some this may be seen as intimidating, wrong, or strange but in order for healing to be achieved the Australians of this contemporary society need to acknowledge these needs of practicing their faith, and enjoying their outdoor surroundings. Indigenous people all over the world are suffering with the emotional and physical trauma of being part of the Stolen Generation. It is not something that will fade away with time, nor will it ever be forgotten about, the Stolen Generation was a horrific time for everyone who was involved and it’s the job of Australia today and in the future to right the wrongs of the past and enable the healing process to take place effectively. Bibliography ABS (September 2013). Measures of Australian progress. Retrieved September, 2013, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/1370.0~2010~Chapter~Aboriginal%20and%20Torres%20Strait%20Islander%20peoples%20(4.4.6.2 Press, R. W. (Septemeber 2013). Stolen Generations Fact Sheet. Retrieved September, 2013, from http://reconciliaction.org.au/nsw/education-kit/stolen-generations/#impact Australian Human Rights Commission (September,2013). Australian Human Rights . Retrieved September, 2013, from http://www.humanrights.gov.au/ Byrne, F. (September, 2013). Testimonies . Retrieved September, 2013, from http://stolengenerationstestimonies.com/index.php/testimonies/1020.htm Australia, H. P. (September, 2013). Healing. Retrieved September, 2013, from http://healingfoundation.org.au/healing-programs/

Email and Postal Rules Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Email and Postal Rules - Essay Example According to the study over the last couple of decades, beginning from the 1990s, there is a sharp decline of letter writing in accordance to the report of UK postal service. Of course, official letters are still in use and the postal department delivers them throughout the world. However, in the context of casual letter writing, there is a diminishing trend and the fundamental cause of this trend is globalization and the impact of internet communication along with other telecommunication agents. Acceptance and offer analysis is an age-old approach of contract law, which is used in order to determine whether there is an agreement between two individuals or parties. A number of things can be offered, like a fax, newspaper, letter, email and also conduct as long as it conveys the idea of the offered given in the contract. An invitation to treat is not considered as an offer as it only indicates that a person is willing to discuss a contract. If the person the offer has been made to rejects it, the offer is destroyed, as it cannot be received in the future. Like in the case of Hyde v. Wrench, in reply to an offer for selling an estate at a definite price, the plaintiff responded with a lower price. Thus, the offer was then refused and when the plaintiff wanted to buy the estate at the former price, they could not as no contract was signed with the initial offer and hence it did not exist. The late 1990s and 2000s can be referred to as a new era of sunshine gradually but progressively scattering its rays all over the world, incorporating the nations, bringing

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Browning ordinary men Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Browning ordinary men - Essay Example According to the morals of the society, execution of mass murder by soldiers is an inhumane act that erodes morals accorded to life and its significance. The reason of committing the mass murder by the help of the soldiers is Germany was to uphold Germany’s superiority against other races (Browning 16). The soldiers that carried out this particular mass murder also demonstrated lack of humanity to the innocent Jews. Thousands of the recruited police and soldiers armed with ammunition surrounded the unarmed Jews with the intention only to kill them hardheartedly (Browning 6). In addition, the armed soldiers and police officers shoot the unarmed Jews with intent to kill in ravines, ditches and forests. Hence, soldiers as the perpetrators of the mass murder depicts how one during their time would turn to be influential such that he could dictate the existence of other especially the Jews who were the victims of the day. Consequently, this power and influential status of the soldi ers prompted them to commit atrocities. One of the significant aspects that transformed soldiers to merciless killers was their respective psychological transformations dictated by circumstances, which they were in during then. Respective psychological transformations experienced by soldiers compelled them to unleash torture as well as exterminate innocent and helpless Jews (Browning 171). Transformation in this case implies abrupt change due to circumstance from being or behaving like an ordinary man to individuals who are merciless and ready to participate in committing serious historical crimes against humanity, which is by killing the defenceless through shooting as they did to Jews. The perpetrators of the German holocaust showed a sense of loyalty and obedience to their government. Each perpetrator was a subject to the ruling government under the Nazi

Monday, August 12, 2019

Introduction the Playstation Network being hacked Essay

Introduction the Playstation Network being hacked - Essay Example Most worrying about hackers is that once they hack into sensitive information, they compromise the functionality of the hacked system hence putting the affected business into jeopardy. Associated with computer crime include spamming, theft, terrorism, pornography, fraud among other malicious acts. One of the historical computer crimes targeted Sony’s PlayStation Network. PlayStation Network (PSN) is and internet based multiplayer gaming console provided by Sony Corporation. The network provides a platform in which game players across the world interact through media delivery. PSN members have to register and provide other personal information such as credit card numbers, date of birth, passwords, addresses, among other sensitive information. Therefore, a breach of network security in Sony’s PSN console means that essentially sensitive information get into malicious hands. On April 2011, it was reported that information belonging to almost 80 million PSN users was expose d following a hack. During this incident people were unable to use their services such as Qriocity, Netflix, or Hulu. They also couldn’t get onto the Internet and play games online which is the main feature of the PlayStation. Considering the adverse effects of hacking on online based businesses, this paper will zero in on discussing the hacking of Sony’s PSN. Among the different issues to be discussed include the possible ways in which the PSN was hacked. More specifically, the paper will discuss how Sony Corporation handled the hacking issue including identifying the breach, system downtime, compensation to the users, action taken against the hacker. Lastly, the paper will discuss the technical actions taken by Sony to ensure that such a breach does not take place in the